!A. Conceptual Research and Design

Discuss all aspects of script and director's approach to picture in preliminary talks with director. Analyze script as whole. Analyze story structure. Analyze characters. Research period, events, general subject and appropriate design elements. Devise style, visualize approach. Continue talks with director on new ideas. Come to agreement with director. Discuss and come to agreement with production designer. Discuss and research with technical advisor.

B. Practical Research and Design

Ascertain or find out budget requirements. Scout and approve locations. Plot sun position for locations. Check local weather. Check tide tables near ocean. Review, discuss and approve set plans. Review, discuss and approve spotting plans for stages. Review and approve props, picture cars, airplanes, boats, horse-drawn vehicles, mock-ups and miniatures.

C. Technical Research and Design

Visit laboratory to calibrate, customize and evaluate exposure system for any combination of electronic or chemical image capture; establish developing, printing, timing and transfer protocols. Visit equipment vendors. Explore new equipment. Learn how new equipment works. Invent or cause to be invented special equipment or techniques for show. Standardize and create effects bible for show. Help create and approve any storyboards. Design or cause to be designed and approve any built-in or practical lighting fixtures. Design lighting plot plan and rigging for stages and locations with gaffer and key grip

D. Quality Control

Choose and approve crew, film stock, lab, equipment, second unit and visual-effects crews. Supervise manufacture and testing of new or modified equipment. Visit sets under construction. Approve wild walls, ceiling pieces and any moving set pieces. Check lighting-fixtures crew Walk locations and stages with all departments to discuss requirements. Approve set colors and textures. Approve costume colors and textures. Approve make-up and hair. Generate (or cause to be generated) and approve equipment lists for camera, electric and grip. Check dailies screening rooms for correct standards.

E. Implementation

Cast stand-ins. Train crew to use any new equipment. Walk locations and stages with director and devise shooting plan. Make list of special equipment for production manager and indicate number of days required. Work with assistant director on shooting schedule (order and days required for each scene) Estimate and order film stock (type, size, quantity) Generate (or cause to be generated) and approve rigging and shooting manpower and man-days. Assist other departments in getting required equipment, manpower and tests. Drop by all departments and department heads at least twice a day to answer any questions. Mediate any problems between departments. Check loading of production trucks or cargo containers for location or international shipping. Visit cast run-through and rehearsals. Advise and back up director on any problems. Help producer or studio solve any production problems.

F. Testing

Shoot tests for style. Shoot tests for lab. Shoot tests for lighting of principal actors. Shoot tests for camera & lenses. Shoot tests for wardrobe & make-up. Shoot tests for any special effects process, unusual rigs, props or methods.


A. Planning

Check and approve all call sheets and shooting order of the day's work.

B. Blocking

Watch rehearsal of scene to be shot. Devise shot list with director (coverage). Choose lens and composition, show to director for OK Make sure composition and movement fulfill scene task. Work out mechanical problems with camera operator, assistant camera, dolly and crane grips. Set any camera-movement cues. Place stand-ins and rehearse, fine tune. Ensure proper coverage of scene for editor. Work with assistant director on background action.

C. Lighting

Design lighting to show set/location to best advantage relative to story, style and dramatic content. Light each actor to reinforce and reveal character. Make sure mood and tone of light help tell story. Design light for minimum reset time between set-ups. Utilize stand-by painter for control of highlights, shadows, aging, dusting down of sets and props. Set and match light value, volume, color and contrast of each setup (exposure) Set any lighting cues (dimmers, spot lights, color changes and any pre-programming)

D. Preparation

Work out any sound problems Work out any problems with other departments. Check, set and approve all stunts with stunt coordinator. Set any additional cameras required for stunts. Double-check safety with all concerned. Show shot to director to make any final changes. Get actors in for final mechanical rehearsal; solve any outstanding problems.

E. Photography

Photograph scene. Approve or correct take. Check parameters and reset for next take. Shoot any plates. Shoot any video playback material. Move to next setup.

F. Administrative

Define first setup in morning and after lunch. Make sure stills are taken of scene. See that "making of” and - or EPK crews get needed footage. Make sure script supervisor has any special camera or lighting notes. Check film raw stock inventory. Try to shoot up short ends. Ensure camera log book is being kept up to date. Complete day's work. Discuss first setup for the next day. Ensure camera, electrical and grip crews get all copies of equipment rental or purchase invoices and approve before accountants pay vendors. Take care of any future or ongoing production issues. Answer any questions about future problems. Visit production manager and producer at end of day. Check for return of all unused equipment.

G. Quality Control

Call in for lab report. View previous day's work in projected dailies with director, producer, editor, camera crew. Discuss and approve dailies. Consult with make-up, wardrobe, production designer and assistant director about dailies. View, discuss, correct or approve second­ unit or effects dailies. Order reprints if necessary.

H. Training

Teach beginning actors movie technique (hitting marks, size of frame, lenses, etc.) Train camera crew for next job up the ladder.

I. Contingency

If director is disabled, finish day's shooting for him or her.


A. Additional Photography

Discuss and be aware of delivery dates for all .postproduction Photograph or approve any additional scenes, inserts, special effects or second unit.

B. Timing

Time and approve trailer for theater and TV. Approve all optical and digital effects composites. Time the picture. Retime until correct.

C. Quality Control

Approve final answer print. Show to director for OK. Approve interpositive (IP) Approve internegatives (IN) Approve release prints. Approve show prints from original negative. Approve all blow-ups or reductions.

D. Telecine/Color Correction

Supervise and approve film or digital original transfer to electronic or film media (High-Def, NTSC, PAL, Secam masters, digital intermediates, archival masters, etc.) Supervise and approve all transfers to and from digital intermediates. Supervise and approve all letter box, pan and scan, or reformatting of film. Supervise and approve tape-to-tape color correction and VHS, DVD, digital projection media, etc. Show electronic transfers to director for ok.

E. Publicity

Do any publicity (newspaper, magazine, internet, radio, TV, DVD commentary, etc.)

F. Restoration/Archival

Be available for any future reissue, archival reprint or electronic transfer of film.

© 2002 by The American Society of Cinematographers